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Psalm 137 and Popular Culture

Gebhard_Fugel_By the Rivers of_Babylons

By the Rivers of Babylon, Gebhard Fugel, 1920

Just when you think popular culture has shelved the Bible as passé, along comes a haunting version of Psalm 137 sung by American singer-songwriter, Don McLean,* and captured on this video. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uTnspbSjKVc

A lament over the destruction of Jerusalem, McLean’s version of Ps. 137 captures the ache of those who were taken from their homes and brought to the Babylonian Empire’s capital for slave labor.   This popular version’s lyrics are a summary of the Psalms’ opening four verses, simply but powerfully conveyed for maximum impact.

Beside the rivers of Babylon, we sat and wept
    as we thought of Jerusalem.
We put away our harps,
    hanging them on the branches of poplar trees.
For our captors demanded a song from us.
    Our tormentors insisted on a joyful hymn:
    “Sing us one of those songs of Jerusalem!”
But how can we sing the songs of the Lord
    while in a pagan land?

“The rivers of Babylon” was the name Jews used for the whole country, sharply contrasted to their beloved Jerusalem, destroyed when Nebuchadnezzar’s troops invaded. (For that reason, Ps. 137 is considered one of the few that can be dated—either written between 587 -539 BCE, the period of captivity that starts with Jerusalem’s destruction in 587, or just after the Jews’ release in 539 BCE).

Demanding that the captives sing – an act of joy – when hearts are breaking for their many losses (loved ones, homes, country, etc.), smacks of cruelty. It reminds us of Nazis demanding that the classical musicians in Jewish concentration camps entertain captors with their beloved Bach and Brahms.

The Psalm doesn’t shy away from those strongest of emotions in extreme circumstances–grief, anger and outrage. Aren’t these the natural responses to evil? Perhaps this is the way Ps. 137 tells us we must never be complacent when evil tries to gain the upper hand, whether in individual lives or for an entire nation and people.

But the lament doesn’t stop there, providing the reader or listener with a way out of such mental or physical hell. After the opening lament (verses 1-4) expressing grief, verses 5 and 6 turn us to the value of remembering.

I forget you, O Jerusalem,
    let my right hand forget how to play the harp.
May my tongue stick to the roof of my mouth
    if I fail to remember you,
    if I don’t make Jerusalem my greatest joy.

Who hasn’t experienced remembering better days–whether prior to a death, divorce, health or financial challenge? And yet the Psalmist points us to far more than just better times. It’s remembering why Jerusalem is our greatest joy, Jerusalem representing the place where God dwells.   For centuries the Jews and Israelites believed their God was a tribal God and lived in Zion (Jerusalem), which was one reason Solomon needed to build a Temple for Him.

But a spiritual breakthrough grew out of their reverse exodus or deportation to Babylon. They might have left Jerusalem, but God would never leave them.   It was in captivity where the Jews began to glimpse how enormous God is, far beyond the tribal deity who protected them on their homeland’s battlefield. Indeed, this is the God capable of saving from fiery furnaces and lion’s dens—even securing the Jews’ national release to return home.

In the midst of their grieving, Psalm 137 turns them to the answer, and it can do the same for us.

Note: For a different musical interpretation of the same Ps. 137, watch this dramatic clip from Guiseppe Verdi’s opera (1841) that launched his artistic career: Nabucco (the short version of “Nebuchadnezzar” in Italian, about the same period of Jewish captivity.  It’s a kind of 19th century version of popular culture.) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oPy_HwOtumU

*The verses were were composed by Englishman, Philip Hayes and McLean recorded it as ‘Babylon’ for a 1971 album.

8 Responses to Psalm 137 and Popular Culture

  1. Carol Rounds January 14, 2016 at 7:46 am #

    Thank you for this uplifting exegesis, and for your musical references. You give Bible study depth and joy. Loved Don McLean’s music.

    • Madelon January 14, 2016 at 8:46 am #

      So delighted you like the musical additions Carol. A group of us are learning the rounds of the McLean version — something fun to undertake with Bible loving and musical friends! A very happy and peace-filled 2016 to you and so appreciate you writing.

  2. Robin January 14, 2016 at 10:43 am #

    Thank you so much Madelon!! Love it all, how the diaspora in Babylon blessed them, reluctantly, by showing them God wasn’t local but omnipresent, making them grow spiritually into a new experience, out of the old and stale traditions, the stunning music, how it relates to my life and everyone’s….brilliant message of hope, showing God never leaves us!! I could hug you! So much beauty and inspiration! Bless you!

    • Madelon February 8, 2016 at 11:22 am #

      Robin,
      Realized I never responded to your lovely comment. Thank you for being such a great, and thoughtful, reader of BibleRoads!

  3. Tim January 14, 2016 at 12:58 pm #

    Great insights and a valuable perspective. But, the conclusion of Psm 137 is pretty gruesome. Why such a change in tone?

    • Madelon January 14, 2016 at 1:07 pm #

      I know, Tim. That last set of verses is tough to read. It’s what I meant by the very tough emotions of revenge, when one feels the victim of evil. That’s part of why the Psalms have been treasured through the centuries. As man’s unvarnished conversation with God — over injustices, indignities, illegalities — every form of degradation, they are also about trying to figure out how to move past those ‘humanly justified but divinely inexcusable’ responses (as someone once described). That’s why the middle section is so powerful. In contrast to the opening and closing, it really is trying to get thought refocused on God and that the Almighty is right with us, as God always was with them in Jerusalem.
      Hope that helps. Thanks for reading. Madelon

  4. Lynn Smith January 14, 2016 at 5:54 pm #

    Dear Madelon, the Opera version of the Psalm is absolutely exquisite. I looked up the translation of the Italian, and I had guessed a lot of it!!!!

    “Va pensiero” English Translation

    Hasten thoughts on golden wings.
    Hasten and rest on the densely wooded hills,
    where warm and fragrant and soft
    are the gentle breezes of our native land!
    The banks of the Jordan we greet
    and the towers of Zion.
    O, my homeland, so beautiful and lost!
    O memories, so dear and yet so deadly!
    Golden harp of our prophets,
    why do you hang silently on the willow?
    Rekindle the memories of our hearts,
    and speak of the times gone by!
    Or, like the fateful Solomon,
    draw a lament of raw sound;
    or permit the Lord to inspire us
    to endure our suffering!

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